Egypt Population: 94,666,993

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 History
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure. Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdel Fattah EL SISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.

 Geography
Controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E
Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Size comparison: more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 2,612 km border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
Coastline: 2,450 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land use: agricultural land: 3.6% arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 0.1%
other: 96.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 36,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Current Environment Issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups: Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2012 est.)
Population: 94,666,993 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.21% (male 16,268,862/female 15,169,039)
15-24 years: 19.24% (male 9,371,819/female 8,839,999)
25-54 years: 37.47% (male 18,020,332/female 17,448,871)
55-64 years: 5.91% (male 2,771,399/female 2,826,094)
65 years and over: 4.17% (male 1,937,119/female 2,013,459) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 62.3%
youth dependency ratio: 53.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5%
potential support ratio: 11.8% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 23.8 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 24.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 30.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 43.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: CAIRO (capital) 18.772 million; Alexandria 4.778 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.7 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.7 years male: 71.4 years
female: 74.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.3% (2008)
Health expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 94.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,500 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 300 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 7% (2014)
Education expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.2%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 34.3% male: 28.7%
female: 52.2% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
etymology: the English name "Egypt" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country "Aigyptos"; the Arabic name "Misr" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian "misru" meaning border or frontier
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: Chief of state: President Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015); note - Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB resigned 12 September 2015

cabinet: Cabinet sworn in 19 September 2015 elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives

election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI elected president; percent of vote in 1 round - Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI (Egyptian Current Party) 3.4%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members selected by the president; member term 5 years; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016

elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next election 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -– Free Egyptians Party 65, Nation’s Future Party 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland’s Protector Party 18, Republican People’s Party 13, Congress Party 12, al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Egyptian National Movement 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Reform and Development Party 3, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, Free Egyptian Building Party 1, independent 351
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitrator on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices"; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
Political parties and leaders: officially recognized: Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN] Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Sameh ASHOUR] Congress Party [Omar Mokhtar SEMEIDA] Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM] Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY] Egyptian National Movement Party [Ibrahim DARWISH] Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mervat TALAWAY] El Tagamu'u Party (National Progressibve Unionist [Sayed Abdel AAL] Freedom Party [Mamdouh HASSAN] Free Egyptian Building Party Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL] Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI] Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS] Mostaqbal Watan (Nation’s Future) Party [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD] My Homeland Egypt Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN] National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL] Nation's Future Party [Ashraf RASHAD, secretary general] New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADAWI] Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT] Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR] Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black
National anthem: name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH

note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yasser REDA (since 19 September 2015)
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador R. Stephen BEECROFT (since 18 December 2014)
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
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 Economy
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment. Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.105 trillion (2016 est.) $1.064 trillion (2015 est.) $1.021 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $342.8 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2016 est.) 4.2% (2015 est.) 2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,100 (2016 est.) $12,000 (2015 est.) $11,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 8.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 10.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 13% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 12.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 12.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 31.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 29.2%
industry: 23.5%
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 13.1% (2016 est.) 12.8% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 25.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 30.8 (2008) 32.1 (2005)
Budget: revenues: $60.09 billion
expenditures: $92.37 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 92.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 90.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury, treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-govern
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.1% (2016 est.) 10.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$12.18 billion (2015 est.) -$12.18 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $14.73 billion (2016 est.) $19.03 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, Turkey 5.8%, UAE 5.1%, US 5.1%, UK 4.4%, India 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $50.07 billion (2016 est.) $57.17 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partners: China 13%, Germany 7.7%, US 5.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $15.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $15.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $50.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $44.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $94.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $89.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $8.042 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.362 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $55.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $70.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $61.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar - 9.71 (2016 est.) 7.7133 (2015 est.) 7.7133 (2014 est.) 7.08 (2013 est.) 6.06 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 162 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 81 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 38 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 511,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 193,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 59,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 547,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 797,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 45,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 215,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 48.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 48.08 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 720 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.832 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 207 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 94.016 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Telecom Egypt remains largely state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: largest fixed-line system in Africa and the Arab region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a near 100-percent penetration of the market

international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat) (2015)
Broadcast media: mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via (2008)
Internet country code: .eg
Internet users: total: 31.767 million percent of population: 35.9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 83 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 7 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
Railways: total 5,085 km
standard gauge: 5,085 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
Waterways: 3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 67

by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9

foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)

registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said (East) (2,617,043), Port Said (West) (1,138,753) LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.76% of GDP (2014) 1.67% of GDP (2013) 1.72% of GDP (2012) 1.86% of GDP (2011) 1.72% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 70,021 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 11,296 (Sudan) (2015); 115,204 (Syria); 6,231 (Somalia) (2016) IDPs: 78,000 (2015)
stateless persons: 22 (2015)
Illicit drugs: transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations
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